Marco José Moya Harrop
Blended Learning is being standardized in Europe. Literature is extensive about how to include various teaching methodologies in this educational trend. The purpose of this article is to summarize the theories that have had the greatest impact on the learning society, offering the reader the opportunity to make their own reflection on how they could articulate these theories through Blended Learning.
This is one of the most traditional theories of learning, although still very present in education, not contemplated in the new educational paradigms. The behavioral approachrefers to the analysis of the creation of habits and how to streng then or eliminate behavior through external motivation (rewards or punishments). In this sense, the student acquires a passive role, reducing learning stimuli that are received from the outside.
From constructivist theories of Jean Piaget (1970) and Lev Vygotsky (1977), this pedagogical model conceives the construction of knowledge through interaction between students and their environment, acquiring an active and collaborative role in their learning. Consequently, the teacher would become a mediator rather than a transmitter of knowledge. Metacognitive Learning has great importance in this educational movement, since the individual is able to self-regulate their own learning.
According to Gardner's theory (1993), every person has different intelligences, with the particularity that each individual develops some better than others, discarding the unique approach that linguistic and mathematical criteria acquired in traditional teaching. Therefore, in this sense, Gardner (1993) identified eight types of intelligence: linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, Body-kinesthetic, Spatial, Musical, Interpersonaland Naturalist.
This innovative methodology involves an approchement between tools and educational content offered by the educational community and the real needs of the learner, providing the system a true customization of the teaching-learning process.
Problem Based Learning
Barrows (1986) defines Based Learning as a learning system based on the principle of using problems as a starting point in the acquisition and integration of new knowledge. In a way, the ABP aims to bring the contents to reality, that is, raise a training by formulating potential problems that future workers will face either independently or collaboratively.
As manifested by Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (1993) cooperative learning promotes the creation of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own learning and that of others. On the other hand, the teacher also changes its role by becoming a cognitive mediator, significantly expanding their coaching tasks with students.
The twenty-first century has conclusively traced the movement of personalization in our society. From a motivational point of view, the individual chooses what is best for oneself. The personalization of education tries to follow the same principle, where the student takes a leading role in their education and the remainder of educational agents as mediators. It is intended that the student reaches the maximum development of their capabilities and human potential. García Hoz (1988) summarizes four characteristic personalized learning styles: Integrator and open, thoughtfuland creative, singulatorand conventional, and Optimistic.
The satisfaction for participatingin a recreational activity is inherent in human beings. The different methodologies, "Gamification" or "Edutaiment" transfer entertainment to educational contexts to facilitate, in a dynamic way, the acquisition of content to the student. In this sense, we can say that video games have real pedagogical potential, as long as they are focused on education.
In this society, characterized by constant change, it will not be easy to find a methodology that provides the desired training efficiency. Faced with this challenge, Blended Learning is settling its bases, and all indications are that it will become one of the most powerful educational systems in the educational environment. Experts, teachers and researchers will face an important role in articulating the Blended Learningin the current scenario seeking, obviously, the further development of social and cultural skills of the individual.
In short, it is considered imperative that all educational body makes reading and reflection on the various educational theories to build new patterns that will make Blended Learning quality training.
Barrows, H. S. (1986). A taxonomy of problem‐based learning methods. Medical education 20(6), 481-486.
García Hoz, V. (1988). La práctica de la Educación Personalizada. Madrid: Rialp.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences.The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books.
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., &Holubec, E. Circles of learning (4th ed.). Edina, MN:
Interaction Book Company, 1993.
Vygotski, L. S. (1977). Pensamiento y lenguaje. Buenos Aires: La Pléyade.
Buck Institute for Education (2014).Why Project Based Learning (PBL)?
Recuperado el 17 de noviembre de 2014 de http://bie.org/